require respiratory support to help them breathe. This can include the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), mechanical ventilation, or surfactant therapy to improve lung function.
Nutritional support: Newborns in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) may require specialized feeding techniques or intravenous nutrition (parenteral nutrition) to meet their nutritional needs. Breast milk is often encouraged, and if the mother is unable to provide milk, donor breast milk or specialized formulas may be used.
Phototherapy: Jaundice, a condition caused by the buildup of bilirubin in the blood, is common in newborns. Phototherapy involves exposing the baby to special lights that help break down bilirubin and reduce its levels.
Intravenous medications: Neonatologists may administer various medications through intravenous (IV) lines to treat specific conditions or prevent infections. These medications can include antibiotics, antivirals, pain relievers, or medications to support heart function.
Temperature control: Premature infants often struggle to regulate their body temperature. Neonatologists may use incubators, radiant warmers, or skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care) to help maintain a stable body temperature.
Monitoring and diagnostic tests: Continuous monitoring of vital signs, such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation, is essential in the neonatal intensive care setting. Additional diagnostic tests, such as blood tests, imaging studies (X-rays, ultrasounds), or genetic testing, may be performed to evaluate the baby’s health and guide treatment decisions.
Surgical interventions: In some cases, surgical procedures may be necessary to correct birth defects or address specific medical conditions. These can include surgeries to repair heart defects, intestinal malformations, or certain types of birth defects.